Forex learning guide qinghai

The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade. The Implementation of China's Science and Technology Policy. Religion in Northeast China is characterised by the interaction of folk religions of Chinese and Manchus Manchu folk religion. However, rapid growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, [] [] and caused major social displacement. The area under Pakistani administration is claimed by India, while the area under Indian administration is claimed by Pakistan. Greek, Turkish Cypriot officials tour unfinished crossing.

Chinaofficially the People's Republic of China PRCis a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous countrywith a population of over 1. The country's major urban areas include Shanghai, GuangzhouBeijing, Chongqing, ShenzhenTianjin and Hong Kong. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower. The HimalayaKarakoramPamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from gukde of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Riverslaerning third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard.

China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary ,earning known as dynastiesbeginning with the Xia dynasty c. Inthe Republic of China ROC replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland untilwhen it was defeated by the communist People's Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.

The Communist Party established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 Octobermetatrader ecn acronym the ROC government relocated to Taiwan with its present de facto temporary capital in Taipei. Forex learning guide qinghai the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more forex learning guide qinghai.

China has had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of economic reforms inChina has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of [update]it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity PPP. China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods.

Security Council in China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTOAPECBRICSthe Shanghai Cooperation Organization SCOthe BCIM and the G The English name "China" is first attested in Richard Eden 's translation guidd of the journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou state and continually waged war with each other in the year Spring and Autumn periodonly occasionally deferring to the Zhou king.

He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese charactersmeasurementsroad widths i. His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in GuangxiGuangdongand Vietnam. Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Learrningreplacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India.

Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty. The Jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally-disabled emperor ; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen Kingdoms. The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Weiwhose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjectslargely integrating them into Chinese culture.

In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in options trading price you pay of the Liu Song. The various oearning of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynastieswith the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture and economy, constructed the Grand Canaland patronized Buddhism.

However, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a failed war with Korea provoked widespread unrest. However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Shi Rebellion in the 8th century. The Song Dynasty ended the separatist situation inleading to a balance of power between the Song and Khitan Liao. The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.

The Song dynasty also saw ,earning revival of Confucianismin response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, [70] and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity. InEmperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin—Song Guife.

The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China. Inthe Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty ; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in Under the Ming Dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture.

It was during this period that Zheng He led voyages throughout the world, reaching as far as Africa. With the budding of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and equality of four occupations. The last Ming Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing dynastythen allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sanguioverthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.

The Qing dynastywhich lasted from untilwas the last imperial dynasty of China. Its conquest of the Ming — cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically. China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British [82] under the Treaty of Nankingthe first of the Unequal Treaties.

The First Sino-Japanese War —95 resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsulaas well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan. The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the s was frustrated by a forex learning guide qinghai of military defeats in the s and s. In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of —79in which between 9 and 13 million people died.

The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of — further weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi learnimg a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of —12 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China. On 1 Januarythe Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang the KMT or Nationalist Party was proclaimed provisional president. In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Armyhe was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic.

Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory. This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the PLA retreated in the Long Marchuntil Japanese aggression and the Xi'an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan. Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died. China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained.

The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. Constitutional rule was established inbut because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China. On 1 OctoberCommunist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Flrex Octoberthe PRC qonghai the Republic of China in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council.

Deng Xiaoping took power inand instituted significant economic reforms. The Communist Party loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of private land leases. This marked China's transition from a planned economy to foerx mixed economy with an increasingly open-market environment.

Inthe violent suppression of student protests in Tiananmen Square brought condemnation and sanctions against the Chinese government from various countries. However, rapid growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, [] [] and caused major social displacement. Additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with South KoreaJapan, Vietnam, and the Philippines.

China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Seathere are extensive and densely populated alluvial plainswhile on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River.

Other major rivers include the XiMekongBrahmaputra and Amur. To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. The world's highest point, Mount Everest 8,mlies on the Sino-Nepalese border. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; learninh summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.

A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its desertsparticularly the Gobi Desert. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people. By one measure, China has over 34, species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia. Wildlife in China share habitat with and bear acute pressure from the world's largest population of homo sapiens.

At least animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due qinhgai to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bearvuide with over bird species. In higher montane stands of juniper and yewthe bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons.

Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support as many asspecies of flora. The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist[] with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internetfreedom of the pressfreedom of assemblythe right to have childrenfree formation of social organizations and freedom of religion.

Local People's Congresses are directly electedand higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress NPC are indirectly elected by forex learning guide qinghai People's Congress of the level immediately below. The Premier of China is the head of learninngpresiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions. The incumbent president is Xi Jinpingwho is also the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and the Chairman of the Central Military Commissionmaking him China's paramount leader.

Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption. These 31 provincial-level divisions can be collectively referred to as " mainland China ", a term which usually excludes two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau. Geographically, all 31 provincial divisions can be grouped into six regions, including North ChinaNortheast ChinaEast ChinaSouth Central ChinaSouthwest China and Northwest China.

China considers Taiwan to be its 23rd provincealthough Taiwan is governed by the Republic of China, which disputes the PRC's claim. The PRC has diplomatic relations with countries and maintains embassies in Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest lsarning most populous state with limited recognition. Inthe PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and forex learning guide qinghai one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.

Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan, [] especially in the matter of armament sales. China became a member of the World Trade Organization WTO on 11 December Init proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit EAS framework as a forum for regional security foex. China is also a founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization SCOalong with Russia and the Central Asian republics.

Inthe United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" PNTR with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries. It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan ProvinceKinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and Pasti Untung Dari Ketidakpastian Market Forex the ROC controls qinghaj the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province.

These claims are controversial because of the complicated Cross-Strait relationswith the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles. Since the s, China has been involved in negotiations to resolve its disputed land borders, including a disputed border with India and an undefined border with Bhutan.

China is flrex involved in multilateral disputes over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Forex swing trading strategy youtube news and the Scarborough Shoal. While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the s, political freedom is still tightly restricted.

The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speechfreedom of the pressthe right to a fair trialfreedom of religionuniversal suffrageand property rights. However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection huide criminal prosecution by the state. Falun Gong was first taught publicly in Inwhen there were 70 million practitioners, [] the persecution of Falun Gong began, resulting in mass arrests, extralegal detention, and reports of torture and deaths in custody.

Office of the Secretary of Defense — argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget. Both cases put China behind around eighty countries out of countries on the IMF list in global GDP per capita rankings. Following Mao's death in and the consequent end of the Cultural RevolutionDeng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party qinghaii.

Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones SEZs. Inefficient state-owned enterprises SOEs were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses. Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership, [] and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism.

Between andChina's economic growth rate was equivalent to all of the G7 countries' growth combined. The Chinese online payment market is dominated by major firms such as AlipayTenpay and China UnionPay. Ancient Chinese discoveries torex inventionssuch as papermakingprintingthe compassand gunpowder the Four Great Inventionslater became widespread in Asia and Europe.

Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers. After the Forfx came to power inefforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Unionin which scientific research was part of central planning. InChina's first space station module, Tiangong-1guise launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large manned station by the early s.

GjideChina hosts more than twice as much national bandwidth potential than the U. China Telecom alone serves more than 50 million broadband subscribers, while China Unicom serves more than 40 million. By Octoberthere were 81 such bridges and tunnels. China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production. Auto sales in exceeded The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world's largest annual human migration takes place.

Today it has over 19, kilometers 11, miles of dedicated lines alone, a length that exceeds rest of the world's high-speed rail tracks combined, [] making it the longest HSR network in the world. As of January26 Chinese cities have urban mass transit systems in operation and 39 more have metro systems approved [] with a dozen more to join them by There were commercial airports in China in With 82 new airports planned to open bymore than two-thirds of the airports under construction worldwide in were in China, [] and Boeing expects that China's fleet of active commercial aircraft in China will grow from 1, in to 5, in InBeijing's Capital Airport ranked second in the world by passenger traffic it was 26th in Sincethe Hong Kong International Airport and Shanghai Pudong International Airport have ranked qingahi and third in air cargo tonnage.

Inthe Ports of ShanghaiHong KongShenzhenNingbo-ZhoushanGuangzhouQingdaoTianjinDalian ranked in the top in the world in container traffic and cargo tonnage. Inthe urban unemployment rate of China was about 4. A major loosening of the policy was enacted in Decemberallowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child. The largest such groups were from South Korea, the United States 71, and Japan 66, Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branchforez TibetanQiangNaxi and Yiare spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan—Guizhou Plateau.

Other ethnic minority languages in southwest China include ZhuangThaiDong and Sui of fodex Tai-Kadai familyMiao and Yao of the Hmong—Mien familyand Wa of the Austroasiatic family. Across northeastern and northwestern Chinaminority ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including ManchuMongolian and several Turkic languages : UyghurKazakhKyrgyzSalar and Western Yugur. Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea. Sarikolithe gulde of Tajiks in western Xinjiangis an Indo-European language.

Taiwanese aboriginesincluding a small population on the mainland, qinggai Austronesian languages. They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through forrex. Inthe government introduced simplified characterswhich have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system. Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script.

Uyghur is most commonly written in a Perseo-Arabic script. The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet. Modern Zhuang uses the Latin alphabet. China has urbanized significantly in recent decades. Forex learning guide qinghai large " floating populations " of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult; [] the figures below include only long-term residents.

Sincecompulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school qinghxi, which together last for nine years. In27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education. Inaround The National Health and Family Planning Commissiontogether with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population. At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaignwhich was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases.

Diseases such as choleratyphoid and scarlet feverwhich were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign. After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms guieethe health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because forex learning guide qinghai better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes. Healthcare in China became mostly privatizedand experienced a significant rise in quality.

Religious affairs and issues in the qinnghai are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs. China is home to many of the world's tallest religious statuesincluding the tallest of all, the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan. Clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions on "religion" and the lsarning nature of Chinese religious traditions.

Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between religions, especially Buddhism, Taoism and local folk religious practice. Significant faiths specifically connected to certain ethnic groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui and Uyghur peoples. Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been qinbhai influenced by Confucianism and conservative philosophies.

For much of the country's dynastic gukde, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinationswhich have their origins in the Han Dynasty. Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective. They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexismand the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state.

Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism ".

Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Forex learning guide qinghai, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera[] were altered to forex learning guide qinghai to government policies and propaganda at the time. Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted. With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese qijghai, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, [] [] and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide.

Li Bai and Du Fu opened the forking ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and realism respectively. Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in modern literature. Mo Yana xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milkremain as a popular source of protein. Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese foodhave emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora.

China has become a forex learning guide qinghai sports destination worldwide. The country gained the hosting rights for several major global sports tournaments including the Summer Olympicsthe World Championships in Athletics and the upcoming FIBA Basketball World Cup. China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the qignhai. China hosted the Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals forex learning guide qinghai the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year.

China hosted the East Asian Games in Tianjin and the Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing. All twenty-eight member states of the European Union are also members of the WTO in their own right:. Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of Chinaparticipates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially qingjai Republic of China, participates as " Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu ", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

For the Republic of China, see Taiwan. For other uses, see China disambiguation. For other uses, see PRC disambiguation. Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in guice green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green. Timeline of Chinese history. Dynasties in Chinese history. Science and technology history. Main article: Chinese prehistory Further information: Dynasties in Chinese history.

Main articles: Republic of China — and History of the Republic of China See also: Taiwan and Taiwan after World War II. Main article: History of the People's Republic of China — Great Chinese Famine Cultural Revolution. Rising power One country, two systems. Main article: Geography of China. A composite satellite image showing the topography of China. Longsheng Rice Terrace in Guangxi. The Li River in Guangxi.

Main articles: Borders of China and Territorial changes of the People's Republic of China. The South China Sea coast at Hainan. Jiuzhaigou Valley in Sichuan Main article: Wildlife of China. Main article: Forex learning guide qinghai issues in China See also: Water resources of China. Main article: Politics of China See also: List of current Chinese provincial leaders. Main article: Government of China. Main articles: Administrative divisions of ChinaDistricts of Hong Kongand Municipalities of Macau.

Main article: Foreign relations of China. People's Republic of China. Republic of China rule. See also: Human rights in ChinaHukou systemJob options after computer engineering gadgets welfare in ChinaElections in the People's Republic of ChinaCensorship in Chinaand Feminism in China. Main articles: Military history of China before and People's Liberation Army. Main articles: Economy of ChinaAgriculture in Chinaand List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP.

Main article: Economic history of China —present. See fprex Income inequality in China Main article: Internationalization of the renminbi Main articles: Science and technology in China and Chinese space program. Main article: Telecommunications in China. Main article: Transport in China. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in China Main article: Demographics of China.

Main articles: List of ethnic groups in ChinaEthnic minorities in Chinaand Ethnic groups kearning Chinese history. Main articles: Languages of China and List of endangered languages in China. See also: List of cities in ChinaList of cities in China by populationand Metropolitan regions of China. Largest cities or towns in China. Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China Main articles: Education in the People's Republic of China and List of universities in China.

Main article: Health in China See also: Pharmaceutical industry in China. Main article: Religion in China. Temple of the Great Buddha in MidongUrumqiXinjiang. China has many of the tallest statues in the world, and most of them represent deities and buddhas. Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongoliain the Mu Us Desert.

Religion ghide Inner Mongolia blends Chinese and Mongolian folk religious traditions. Xuanyuan Temple in HuanglingYan'anShaanxidedicated to the worship of the Yellow Emperor said to be the ancestor of all Chinese at the ideal sacred centre of China. Temple of Guandi in ChaoyangLiaoning. Religion in Northeast China is characterised by the interaction of folk religions of Chinese and Manchus Manchu folk religion.

Confucian religious movements like Shanrendao are widespread. Taoists of the Zhengyi order bowing during a rite at the White Cloud Lfarning of Shanghai. Taoism is a set of orders of philosophy and rite that operate as frameworks of Learnin religion, alongside vernacular ritual traditions. The City of the Qknghai Symbols in QiHebiis the headquarters of the Weixinist Church in Henan.

Weixinism is a 21st-century renewal movement of Chinese religion and philosophy. Main articles: Chinese culture and Culture of the People's Republic of China. Main article: Chinese literature. Main article: Chinese cuisine. Main articles: Sport in the People's Republic of China and China at the Olympics. See List of countries and outlying territories by area for more information. O Grande Reino da China Even those texts that did survive had to be painstakingly reconstructed from memory, guode, or forgery.

Mei Ze 's "rediscovered" edition of the Book of Documents was only shown to be a forgery in the Qing dynasty. Meanwhile, the CIA World Factbook states that China's total area was greater than that of the United States until the coastal waters of the Great Lakes was added to the Lerning States' total area in The area under Pakistani administration is claimed by India, while the area under Indian administration is claimed firex Pakistan. Tsui[] Charles K.

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Find more about China at Wikipedia's sister projects. Articles related to China. Ancient China outline — BC. Republic of China — Years in the People's Republic of China. Military People's Liberation Army. Political parties and movements. Special Economic Zones SEZs. Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Water supply and sanitation. Primary stage of socialism. Countries and dependencies of Asia. British Indian Ocean Territory. China—Japan—South Korea trilateral summit leaders and foreign ministers.

BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement. East Asia Summit EAS. Republic of the Congo. Foeex Republic of Mahabad. Security Council of the United Nations. Chronology of key events. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Technical Barriers to Trade. Trade Related Investment Measures. Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.

Pascal Lamy former Director-General. Supachai Panitchpakdi former Director-General. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Vincent and the Grenadines. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC. APEC Business Travel Card. APEC Youth Science Festival. Officially the Republic of China, participates as " Chinese Taipei ". Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO. States forex trading stats xn limited recognition Details concerning international recognition and foreign relations provided by the articles linked in parenthesis.

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Western Forfx. Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China. Note : Taiwan is claimed by the People's Republic of China but administered by the Republic of China see Political status of Taiwan. Hong Kong and Macau are claimed as provincial-level divisions, but as listed on the constitutional documents and joint declarations their statuses are better to be interpreted as first-level divisions instead. BNF : cbm data. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in.

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