Market Value Share Analysis. Eddie is a seven-year-old liver-and-white Springer with some Lab thrown in. Some of the changes in device ownership patterns are particularly evident for young adults. Under the NFIP, a travel trailer can be considered a building only if it is without wheels, built on a chassis and affixed to a permanent foundation and regulated under the community's floodplain management and building ordinances or laws. Max is house trained but likes to make frequent trips outside to a fenced yard. It allows parents experiencing hard times to send their kids to stay with a trusted relative, for instance. Melissa also devised a code: Quita would say "I love asparagus" over the phone if she felt in danger.
You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience. Days later, she goes missing. KIEL, Wisconsin — Todd and Melissa Puchalla struggled for more than two years to raise Quita, the troubled teenager they'd adopted from Liberia. When they decided to give her up, they found new parents to take her in less than two days — by posting an ad on the Internet.
Nicole and Calvin Eason, an Illinois adoptin in their 30s, saw the ad and a picture of the smiling year-old. They were eager to take Quita, even though the ad warned that americz had been diagnosed with severe health and behavioral problems. In emails, Nicole Eason assured Melissa Puchalla that she could handle the girl. A few weeks later, on Oct. The handoff took place at the Country Aire Mobile Home Park, where the Easons lived in a trailer. No attorneys or child welfare officials came with them.
The Puchallas simply signed a notarized statement declaring these virtual strangers to be Quita's guardians. The visit lasted just a few hours. It was the first and the last time the couples would meet. To Melissa Puchalla, the Easons "seemed wonderful. After a sheriff's computer adoption rate in america helped remove the Easons' second child, a newborn baby boy, the deputy wrote in his report that adoptionn "parents have severe psychiatric problems as well with violent tendencies.
They say they did nothing wrong, and neither was charged. On Quita's first night with the Easons, her new amerjca told her to ameriica them in their bed, Quita says today. Nicole slept naked, she says. Within a few days, the Easons stopped responding to Melissa Puchalla's attempts to check on Quita, Puchalla says. When she called the school that Quita was supposed to attend, an administrator told Puchalla computer adoption rate in america the teenager had never shown up.
GIRL AVAILABLE: Quita Puchalla's adoptive parents used this photo to advertise her online. The Easons had packed up their purple Chevy truck and driven off with her, leaving behind a pile of trash, a pair of blue mattresses and two puppies chained in adoptioh yard, authorities later found. The Puchallas had rescued Quita from an orphanage in Liberia, brought her to America and then signed her over to a couple they barely knew.
Days later, they had no idea what had become of her. When she arrived in the United States, Quita says, ih "was happy … coming to a nicer place, a safer place. It didn't turn out that way," she says today. Like Quita, now 21, these children are often the casualties of international adoptions gone sour. Through Yahoo and Facebook groups, parents and others advertise the unwanted children and then pass them to strangers with little or no government scrutiny, sometimes illegally, a Reuters investigation has found.
It is a largely lawless marketplace. Often, the children are treated as chattel, and the needs of parents are put ahead of the welfare of computer adoption rate in america orphans they brought to America. The practice is called "private re-homing ," a term typically used by owners seeking new homes for their pets. Based on solicitations posted on one of eight similar online bulletin boards, the parallels are striking.
A woman who said she is from Nebraska offered an year-old boy she had adopted from Guatemala. Another parent advertised a child days after bringing her to America. On average, a child was advertised for re-homing there once a week. Most of the children ranged in adotpion from 6 to 14 and adoptuon been adopted from abroad — from countries such as Russia and China, Ethiopia and Ukraine. The youngest was 10 months old. After learning what Reuters found, Yahoo acted swiftly.
Within hours, it began shutting down Adopting-from- Disruptionthe six-year-old adoptlon board. A spokeswoman said the activity in the group violated the company's terms-of-service astrofx forexworld. The company subsequently took down five other groups that Reuters brought to its attention. A similar forum on Facebook, Way Stations of Love, remains active. A Facebook spokeswoman says the page shows "that the Internet is a reflection of society, and people are using it for all kinds of communications and to tackle all sorts of problems, including very complicated issues such as this one.
Speaking publicly about her experience for the first time, one girl adopted from China and later sent to a second home said she was made to dig her own grave. Another re-homed child, a Russian girl, recounted how a boy in one house urinated on her after the two had sex; she was 13 at the time and was re-homed three times in six months.
Legal adoptions must be handled through the courts, and prospective parents must be vetted. But there are ways around such oversight. Children can be sent to new families quickly through a basic "power of attorney" document — a notarized statement declaring the child to be in the care of another adult. In many cases, this flexibility is good for the child.
It allows parents experiencing hard times to send their kids to stay with a trusted relative, for instance. But with the rise of the Internet, parents are increasingly able to find complete strangers willing to take in unwanted children. By obtaining a power of attorneythe new guardians are able to enroll a ocmputer in school or secure government benefits — actions that can effectively mask changes of custody that take place illegally outside the purview of child welfare authorities.
You are using an outdated browser and cannot view this interactive. There is one potential safeguard: an agreement among the 50 U. Virgin Islands called the Interstate Compact on the Placement ratee Children, or ICPC. The agreement requires that if a child is to be transferred outside of the family to a new home in a different state, parents notify authorities in both states. That way, prospective parents can be vetted. The compact has been adopted by every state and is codified in various statutes that give it the force of law.
Even so, these laws are seldom enforced, in part because the compact remains largely unknown to law enforcement authorities. Each state is also left to decide how to punish those who give or take children in violations of the compact's provisions. Some states attach criminal sanctions — generally, misdemeanors. Other states aren't explicit about how violations should be handled. A child might be removed from the new home if an illegal re-homing is discovered.
But seldom is either set of parents punished. No state, federal or international laws even acknowledge the existence of re-homing. International adoptees are especially susceptible to adoptlon re-homed. At least 70 percent of the children computer adoption rate in america on the Yahoo bulletin board, Adopting-from- Disruptionwere advertised as foreign-born.
Americans have adopted aboutchildren from other countries since the late s. But unlike parents who take in American-born children through the U. It isn't unusual for the children they bring home to have undisclosed physical, emotional or behavioral problems. No authority tracks what happens after a child is brought to America, so no one knows how often international adoptions fail. Some experts say the percentage could be higher given the lack of support for those parents.
The State Department then collects that information. In addition, adoption agencies are supposed to report to the department certain types of failed international adoptions that come to their attention. But many states say they are unable to keep track of the cases because their computer systems are antiquated. And the State Department won't disclose the number of failed international adoptions that are reported by adoption agencies. The failure to keep track of what happens after children are brought to America troubles some foreign governments.
So do instances of neglect or abuse that become known. Often cited is the case of the Tennessee woman who returned a 7-year-old boy she adopted from a Russian orphanage. The adoptino had cared for him only six months when she put the boy on a flight to Moscow in April He was accompanied by a typed letter that read in part, "I no longer wish to parent this child. Other nations, including Guatemala and China, have also made the process more difficult. As a result, the number of foreign-born children adopted into the United States has declined from a peak of almost 23, in to fewer than 10, a year today.
The recent obstacles to bringing new kids to America could make the Internet child exchange even more appealing. A participant in one online bulletin board characterized the computer adoption rate in america groups as "the 'latest country' to adopt from. We have disrupted our daughter. What business of the Russian government? Parents who offer their children on the Internet say they have limited options. Residential treatment centers can be expensive, and some parents say social services won't help them; if they do contact authorities, they fear being investigated for abuse or neglect.
The problems — and the isolation parents feel — can prove overwhelming. On the bulletin boards, parents talk of children becoming abusive and violent, terrorizing them and other kids in the household. I also knew there were people looking to adopt kids from those situations, so I wanted to get those people together, kind of like a clearinghouse. In a nationwide alert to state child welfare authorities, an administrator for the ICPC warned that adoptive parents were sending children to live with people they met on the Internet.
The practice, the official arteis "placing children in grave danger. From left to right, Calvin Eason, Quita Puchalla and Nicole Eason. In the alert, Pennypacker asked that such cases be documented and reported to the national non-profit organization that oversees the ICPC. He says he also told child protection officials in each state to alert their attorneys general, local police and social workers "so that people could be on the lookout. Reporters examined ads for children and emails between parents, and also identified eight Internet groups in which members discussed, facilitated or engaged in re-homing.
Reporters then analyzed thousands of posts from the group that Yahoo subsequently shut down, Adopting-from-Disruption. Some participants in that group both offered and sought children computer adoption rate in america re-homing, sometimes simultaneously. Others looked to offload more than one child at a time.
Some sought new parents for children who already had been re-homed. A year-old boy from the Philippines and a year-old boy from Brazil each were advertised three times. So was a girl from Haiti. She was offered for re-homing when she was 14, 15 and 16 years old. In an interview earlier this year, Nicole Eason - the woman who disappeared with Quita - referred to private re-homing as "non-legalized adoption.
I'll chase you with a hose. I won't leave marks on you. I'm not going to send you with bruises to school," she said. If you need medication for your psychological problems, I've got you there. You need a hug? You need a kiss? Somebody to tickle with you? But this world is not meant to be perfect. And I just don't understand why people think it is. It shows how virtually anyone determined to get a child can do so with ease, and how children brought to America can be abruptly discarded and recycled.
The night before leaving Quita with the Easons, Melissa Puchalla showed her daughter a picture of the couple. Like Quita, Calvin Eason is black. Nicole is white, and Puchalla thought Quita might thrive in a mixed-race household. The Puchallas also say they were giving up the teenager to protect their other children. Quita was unpredictable and violent, Melissa says, and her siblings had grown frightened of her. Puchalla assured her daughter that the Easons were "very good people," Quita remembers.
She says she spent the amefica crying. Part of the allure of re-homing is that the process is far cheaper than formal adoptions. Adopting from a foreign country can cost tens of thousands of dollars. Taking custody through re-homing often costs nothing. In fact, taking a child may enable the new family to claim a tax deduction and draw government benefits. The Easons view re-homing as a way around a prying government, and a way to take a child inexpensively.
For Quita, the drive to the Eason place was a blur. But she remembers vividly when her adoptive father, Todd Puchalla, stopped in front of a mobile home with an overgrown lawn. Some of computer adoption rate in america trailers were well-maintained. This one, Computer adoption rate in america thought, looked like a junkyard. From the picture her mother had shown her, Quita recognized the Easons immediately.
Both were large, well over pounds, and Calvin was tall — about 6-foot But what first caught the Puchallas' attention was the tube coming out of Calvin's neck a few inches beneath his chin. It was from a tracheostomy, a surgical procedure to alleviate a sleep disorder. But at that point, I was walking in such a fog. The paper is signed by the old parents and the new guardians, and witnessed by a ado;tion. As happened in Quita's caseno lawyers or government authorities are involved. The document is filed nowhere; it functions, in essence, as a receipt.
Such agreements com;uter to satisfy the ICPC when custody of the child is exchanged across state lines and authorities in both states aren't involved. But that hasn't stopped some parents from handling transfers this way. Not long after the Puchallas arrived with Quita, the Easons presented a cake. Nicole also had a card for Melissa. Inside were printed these words: "I have faith that you're going to come out of this acoption with more wisdom and resilience than you ever thought possible.
Audio Calvin Eason talks about raising, taking in children. Download the audio here Melissa helped Quita unpack and hugged her goodbye. Everything would be fine, Melissa assured her. Melissa also devised a code: Quita would say "I love asparagus" over the phone if she felt in danger. Quita didn't use the code, Melissa says. As the Puchallas drove away, Melissa sobbed.
She calls the decision "the hardest thing we've ever done in our lives. In the days that followed, two puppies scampered through the trailer, gifts from the Easons to Quita. The dogs lifted the teenager's spirits, but they weren't housebroken and no one cleaned up after them. No one did the dishes, either, or the laundry.
More troubling, Quita says, was that the Amrrica took her into their bed: "They call me in there to sleep … to lay in the bed with them. It was not right to computer adoption rate in america. Nicole and Calvin both say that no child they took in ever slept in their bed. Within days, the Easons had stopped answering Melissa Puchalla's calls or returning her emails, Puchalla says. They attached a makeshift camper to the truck bed of their purple Chevy S, packed most of their belongings and left the state.
Riding along was a friend of adopion Easons, a man on parole in Adoptioon for armed robbery. When Melissa Puchalla called the school Quita was supposed to attend, she talked with an administrator who then contacted state child protection officials. Although Puchalla had signed over custody of Quita, she says she felt obligated to ensure Quita was safe. Authorities, including police, subsequently went to the mobile home park in Westville. A neighbor told a child welfare official that before the Easons adpption, Quita had told the neighbor's daughter that the Easons would be heading to upstate New York to visit Nicole's amedica.
LIBERIAN ORPHAN: In this picture, Quita went by the name Quita Davis and lived in a Tax on options wealth orphanage. Life in America, she says, "turned into a nightmare. Illinois authorities determined that the Easons had fabricated a document they provided to the Puchallas called a "home study.
Actually, Nicole had found a sample document on the Internet and filled it out herself. Some of the information was true; the rest was fiction. The internal report was dated Oct. Authorities then contacted the New York State Police, who located the Easons' truck in Stephentown, New York. It was parked outside computer adoption rate in america house where Nicole's mother lived. When police went to the home on Oct. The man convicted of armed robbery who had traveled with the Easons to New York wasn't there.
Later that day, investigators separately interviewed the Easons and Amrrica. Reports show that the teenager said the Easons had pornography in their house. Police took Quita to a homeless shelter; the next day, she was put on a bus. She was heading back to Wisconsin, by herself, to the parents who had given her up not three weeks before. Taking Quita from the Easons and returning her to the Puchallas was the extent of the response by authorities.
New York State Police concluded that the Easons had committed no crimes in their jurisdiction. Illinois authorities took no legal action, computer adoption rate in america neither did officials in Wisconsin. No one did anything to prevent the Easons from taking a child again. Hundreds of other adoptive parents were seeking new homes for their unwanted children through Internet message boards like those that had featured Quita.
Nicole Eason knew how the child exchange worked. She would tap it again after losing Quita, much as she had used it before. One of the first times, Eason had gone by the screen name Big Momma. The custody transfer took place in a hotel parking lot just off the highway, and the americx who went with her to fx research 2c2p the year-old boy would later be sentenced to federal prison. His crime: trading child pornography.
Additional reporting by Ryan McNeill, Robin Respaut, Zachary Goelman and Elizabeth Dilts in New York Next, Part 2 - The Dangers: In the company of a pedophile. Leave a comment on our Facebook page or tweet us. You can also send us an email at childexchange reuters. By Ryan McNeillRobin Respaut and Megan Twohey Created in Septembera Yahoo group called Adopting-from-Disruption was a place where struggling parents sought support from one another.
For an investigation into how parents use the Internet to offload adopted children, Reuters analyzed more than 5, messages posted on the forum over a five-year period, September to September During that time, the group was one of the most accessible Internet forums for adoptive parents seeking new homes for their children. After Reuters shared its ajerica with Yahoo, the company acted quickly to shut down the computwr.
Reuters identified more than members who particpated at least once during the five-year time period. Just before it was closed, it had members. The information gleaned from posts on the group leaves some questions unanswered. Some advertisements for children contained limited information — for example, the age or sex of arte child is missing. That means Reuters may have accounted for some children more than once.
Even so, the information in the posts provides a clear indication of the expanse of the Ameerica child exchange and many particulars about the children offered on it. MOTIVATED MOM: In her time seeking children on the Internet, Nicole Eason has referred to herself as Big Momma and Momma Bear. Her term for informal custody transfers is "non-legalized adoption," and she defines the phrase to mean: "Hey, can I have your baby?
Interactive Explore an online child market. Michael Comouterexpert on sexual abuse of children. Late last year, Russia banned adoptions by Americans amid a broader diplomatic dispute. NEW PARENTS: On the day her adoptive parents dropped her at the Eason trailer in Illinois, they adoprion this picture inside the couple's kitchen. Your browser does not support audio, download here.
Download the audio here. A look at the kids offered on a Un group. By Ryan McNeillRobin Respaut and Megan Twohey. Created in Septembera Yahoo group called Adopting-from-Disruption was a place where struggling parents sought support from one another. Some also used the group as a clearinghouse for unwanted children. Part 0: The Beginning. Part 7: The End.
How to Adopt a Child
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